Glaucoma refers to a group of diseases, usually caused by increased pressure in the eye, that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. Early detection is important to protecting the eyes from serious vision loss in all types of glaucoma.
Some of the forms of glaucoma include:
Open-Angle Glaucoma – the most common form of the disease. It occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eye slowly rises and causes damage to the optic nerve.
Low-tension or Normal-tension Glaucoma – Optic nerve damage and narrowed side vision occur in people with normal eye pressure. Risk factors for low-tension glaucoma include low blood pressure.
Angle-closure Glaucoma – This occurs when fluid produced in the eye cannot leave the eye. This causes a sudden buildup of pressure in the eye. Symptoms include severe pain, nausea, redness of the eye and blurred vision. If you suspect you may be suffering from angle-closure glaucoma, contact a medical professional immediately, since this can cause severe vision loss if not treated quickly.
Congenital Glaucoma – Children can be born with a defect in the angle of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid. Symptoms include cloudy vision, sensitivity to light, and excessive tearing. Prompt surgical intervention is usually necessary to prevent serious, lifelong visual impairment.
Secondary Glaucoma – Glaucoma can develop as a complication of certain medical conditions (diabetes, sarcoidosis), blunt trauma to the eye, use of steroid medications, advanced cataracts, vascular disorders (retinal vein occlusion, carotid artery disease) and inflammation of the eye (herpes simplex, herpes zoster, chronic uveitis).